what is physics

What is Physics? What is the scope of Physics?


Before talking about what is physics and the scope of physics, it is necessary for us to know or where it came from.

Whenever we want to know about an object. So we use it in different ways. How she is working, the knowledge we get when we keep all this information in a well organized, well organized, and ordered from, is called science.

The word science is derived from the Latin word 'Scientia'. Which literally means "a particular type of knowledge, sophisticated knowledge or specific knowledge". The area of ​​this special knowledge is very large, so for convenience, it has been divided into many branches, such as - Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Astronomical Science, Computer Science, etc. That is, physical science is a branch of science.

What is Physics?

Physics, as we know, is a branch of science. But why was this branch named Physics? The word Physics is derived from the Greek word Fusis, which means nature. By its name, we come to know that the scientific study of nature and natural phenomena is done in physics.

Hence "Physics is that branch of science, in which the various forms of matter and energy and the different activities between matter and energy are studied."

To understand physics well, we have to understand the concept of matter and energy.

Concept of Matter and Energy

Concept of matter and energy


Every object that has mass and the space it occupies and which we can experience through our senses is called Matter.

Examples- table, molecule, atom, pan, water, air, hydrogen, etc.


The ability of an object to function is called energy. It does not have a mass like Matter nor does it occupy space.

Examples- light, energy, sound, kinetic energy of matter, etc.

The relation between Mass and Energy

Many years ago it was understood that there is no correlation between matter and energy. That is, both of them are different. But Einstein proposed that matter and energy are basically the same amounts, which can be mutually interchanged, that is, mass can be converted into energy and energy into mass. The mutual relation of these two can be represented by the following mathematical equation

Energy = mass × (speed of light in vacuum)2

E = mc2

What is the Scope of Physics

Scope of Physics

The study of physics is very exciting and thrilling, which is the basis of all branches of science. On the one hand in physics many microscopic particles; Such as - electrons, protons, neutrons, molecules, etc., are studied, and on the other side there are huge celestial bodies; Like- planets, moons, sun, galaxies, etc. are studied.

Physics interprets natural phenomena from the microscopic atom to the massive universe based on some basic facts. It exhibits symmetry and simplicity in virtual complexity lost in nature. Thus, physics is the most exciting and challenging branch of science. Therefore, it is clear from this that the field of physics is very wide. To simplify its study, it can basically be divided into two parts.

  1. Macroscopic Effect Field
  2. Microscopic Effect Field

1. Macroscopic Effect Field

The macro sphere includes laboratory, earthly, and astronomical level phenomena, which are interpreted based on the principles of Classical Physics.

Classical Physics

The concepts of this branch are simple. Based on this, many incidents of nature can be easily explained, but Classical Physics is not able to explain all phenomena.

Classical Physics can be divided into the following branches.

1. Mechanics

Mechanical is based on Newton's laws of motion and laws of gravity. On the basis of these rules, the speed and equilibrium of particles, solid objects, rocket propulsion, the transmission of water waves, the transmission of sound waves in air, bending rods due to any load, etc. are studied.

In mechanics, we study the physical quantities, mass, force, inertia, etc. with the three laws of matter (solid, liquid, gas).

2. Electrodynamics

In electrodynamics, the phenomena related to charged and magnetic objects are studied. The magnetic field generated by the motion, current conductor and moving charged particle, electromagnetic induction, alternating current circuit, etc. are also studied.

The basic laws of electrodynamics were enunciated by Coulom, Faraday, Ampere, Gauss, which was confirmed by Einstein with four equations.

3. Optics

In optics, light-based phenomena and devices are studied. Under this, the reflection of light, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarization, etc., and the functioning of optical instruments such as telescopes and microscopes are studied.

In optics, subjects such as the formation of a rainbow, the formation of a film on a thin layer of fluid, along with the procedure of telescopes and microscopes are studied.

4. Thermodynamics

In thermodynamics, the thermal equilibrium of bodies, its related rules, heat flow, conversion of heat work, and changes in internal energy, heat, and entropy, etc. due to heat transfer are studied. The procedure of the heat engine and the refrigerant is also explained under thermodynamics.

5. Oscillation and waves

Under this branch, we study the vibrations of these various objects, the transmission of disturbances generated by the vibrated object, etc. It is only by studying this branch that we get to know how our voice moves and what are the characteristics of speech and music?

2. Microscopic Effect Field

Atomic, molecular and nuclear phenomena are studied in the microscopic field of influence. They are interpreted on the basis of the quantum theory underlying modern physics.

Modern Physics

Modern physics developed based on facts based on new concepts. The concepts of this physics are complex. This physics explains all the experimental facts found so far.

Modern physics is divided into ten major branches, which are

1. Atomic Physics

Under it, the properties and atomic structure of the atom are studied.

2. Molecule quantum mechanics

Under this, molecular structure, absorption, and emission of radiation, properties of molecules, etc. are studied.

3. Nuclear physics

Under this, the properties, structure, nuclear reactions and their applications of nuclei are studied.

4. Solid state physics

Under this, the properties of crystalline materials, semiconductors, and alloys are studied and used.

5. High energy physics

Under it, the study of the finite forms and properties of matter, the basic particles of nature, and their interactions are studied.

6. Specific relativity

Under this, length contraction, time elongation, dependence on the speed of a mass, etc. are studied by Einstein's special theory.

7. General Theory of Relativity and Cosmology

This is a new interpretation of the theory of gravity, under which the interaction between particles and space is not the interaction between the gravitational particles, the study of the origin and evolution of the universe in cosmology.

8. Plasma physics

It is studied in the fourth stage (plasma) of matter.

9. Space physics

Under it, subjects related to space and space are studied.

10. Electronics

Under this, studies and applications of semiconductor and electronic devices are done.

Apart from these, some other branches are

  1. Star Physics
  2. Biology
  3. Chemical Physics
  4. Engineering Physics
  5. Geophysics
  6. Medical Physics
  7. Ocean Physics
  8. Environmental Physics
  9. Environmental Physics
  10. Mathematical Physics etc.

It is thus clear that the field of physics is very wide.

Relation of Physics with Other Branches of Science

Relation of Physics with Other Branches of Science

Physics is the fundamental branch of science, so physics works as a key for the development of other branches of science.

Following are some examples of this.

1. Relation of Physics with Chemistry

Atomic structure, radioactivity, X-rays have been well studied in physics. Based on this, chemists have arranged the elements in the periodic table based on their atomic numbers. And on the basis of the forces between different molecules known in physics, only the types and composition of the bonds between atoms and the chemical structure of substances are studied.

2. Relation of Physics with Biological Science

The optical microscope is developed in physics, which is used in the study of biology. Cells of organisms are studied with electron microscopes. X-rays were invented in physics, many of which are used in biology, such as the breaking of bones, stones in the body, detection of pellets, etc. Radioisotopes are used in the treatment of cancer.

3. Relation of Physics with Astronomy

Astrological telescopes were developed in physics. With this telescope, planets and many objects living in the sky are observed. With radio telescopes, astrologers observe distant objects in the universe.

4. Relation of Physics with Mathematics

Physics and mathematics are dependent on each other. Physics formulates some laws of nature and mathematics goes to the bottom of these laws and explains them. The development of many mathematical methods has been possible only due to the principles of physics, such as the equations of motion, differential equations, etc. Apart from these, physics also has relationships with other branches of science, and physics has contributed significantly to their development.

Thanks for reading. If you have any doubts or questions about "What is Physics? What is the scope of Physics?", please comment in the comment box.

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